Hippocrates of Kos


Hippocrates of Kos (Greek: Ἱπποκράτης ὁ Κῷος 460 – 370 BC), a Greek physician of the Classical Period (510 BC – 323 BC) of ancient Greece is recognized for his invaluable contributions in medicine - he is considered the Father of modern medicine.
Soranus of Ephesus, a 2nd-century Greek physician was Hippocrates of Kos first biographer.
He wrote that Hippocrates studied medicine from his father, Heraclides and grandfather Hippocrates I who were both physicians.
He also trained at the asklepieion of Kos and took subjects with Democritus, Gorgias and from the Thracian physician Herodicus of Selymbria.
Later, Hippocrates two sons, Thessalus and Draco, as well as his son-in-law, Polybus became his students.

Theories and Practices


Hippocrates of Kos
Hippocrates founded antiquity's greatest school - the Hippocratic School of Medicine which revolutionized ancient Greek medicine as a distinct, discipline with professional standards and ethical practices that are still valid today.
He emphasized that diseases had a natural cause at a time when most people attributed sickness to superstition or the wrath of the gods - theocratic medicine (based on religious deity) was transformed into modern medicine.
Hippocrates trained physicians, authored medical textbooks and prescribed practices through the Hippocratic Corpus consisting of some 60 medical treatises.
He introduced numerous medical terms universally used today and was the first to initiate the concept of 'physis' (the principle of growth or change in nature) which revolutionized medical treatments based on:
*Clinical observation and rational explanation.
*Systematic categorization of diseases.
*Formulation of humoral theory.
*Moral practices through respect for patients.

Four Balanced Humors


Hippocrates of Kos
Hippocrates theory of a healthy body was composed of four balanced fluid "humors and their influence on the body and its emotions.
1. Black bile
2. Yellow bile
3. Phlegm
4. Blood
It was the first serious attempt to classify different personality types and to link emotions to physiological issues - Hippocrates theory inspired the first psychologists.
Hippocrates stated that there are four fundamental personality types:
*Sanguine (pleasure-seeking and sociable).
*Choleric (ambitious and leader-like)
*Melancholic (analytical and literal).
*Phlegmatic (relaxed and thoughtful).
Hippocrates believed that a body became ill when there was an imbalance in the four senses of humor.
An excess of bodily fluid was thought to cause certain illnesses and personality traits.
If the humors were in balance, the body was in health.
If the humors were in imbalance, the person was sick.
Blood represents cheer and courage.
Phlegm represents apathy.
Yellow bile represents anger.
Black bile represents melancholy.
Hippocrates aimed to restore the balance of the four humors by easing the natural process through:
*Rest and immobilization.
*Lifestyle modifications through diet and exercise to treat diseases.
*Keeping the patient clean and sterile.
Hippocrates used approximately 250 plants to treat ailments and diseases.
Airs, Waters, and Places Treatise
Hippocrates treatise on Airs, Waters, and Places describes the influence of environmental and behavioral factors that might influence the development of disease and advised traveling physicians to “consider the seasons of the year, and what effects each of them produces."
He stated that “our natures are the physicians of our diseases” and advocated natural cure for treatment.

Hippocratic Corpus


Hippocrates of Kos
Hippocrates and his followers wrote over sixty medical literature known as the Hippocratic Corpus that describes many diseases and their treatment.
The Hippocratic Corpus became the foundation upon which Western medical practice was developed.
It was first translated from Greek to Latin in 1525, by Marco Fabio Calvo, during the Renaissance period which began in the 14th century.
The first English translation of the Hippocratic Corpus by Peter Lowe's Chirurgerie ("Surgery"), was published in 1597.
Francis Adams offered a complete English translation in 1849.

Hippocratic Oath


Hippocrates of Kos
The Hippocratic Oath is the most famous document of the Hippocratic Corpus.
An important step in becoming a doctor, medical students must take the Hippocratic Oath to uphold specific ethical standards:
"I swear to fulfill, to the best of my ability and judgment, this covenant: I will respect the hard-won scientific gains of those physicians in whose steps I walk, and gladly share such knowledge as is mine with those who are to follow."
The Hippocratic Oath is an ethical code of conduct by the medical profession throughout the ages specifying the principles of beneficence and non-maleficence and the rules of confidentiality and veracity.
Promises within the oath include "first, do no harm" to patients, never give a deadly drug or help another to use one and a promise to share knowledge.

Plane Tree-Hippocrates of Kos

Hippocrates of Kos
According to legend, Hippocrates taught medical students and wrote under the shade of an Oriental plane tree, or Platanus orientalis on the Greek island of Kos.
Seeds or cuttings from the tree have spread all over the world from the island of Kos.
Some of these places include:
The United States and the National Library of Medicine was gifted on December 14, 1961 and planted on the grounds surrounding the library.
The University of Glasgow, Department of Medical Genetics.
Queen's University Belfast Medical School, Northern Ireland.
University of Barcelona, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
University of Sydney's School of Rural Health in Dubbo, Australia.
Sir Charles Gardener Hospital in Perth, Western Australia.
The Medical Library, Kyushu University, Fukuoka City (Japan) donated by Dr. Hiroshi Kambara in 1973.
The American College of Physicians have a mace with a wooden shaft made from a branch of a plane tree from the island of Kos.
The Medical Association of Kos presented a gavel made from wood of the plane tree to the President of the Canadian Medical Association in 1954.

All Disease Begins in the Gut-Hippocrates


Hippocrates of Kos declared that "all disease begins in the gut."
Many chronic metabolic diseases do begin in the gut.
The waistline is the truest indication of the body's general condition.
The old adage, "the smaller your waistline, the longer your lifeline" has real meaning.
A sensible diet and exercise plan is the healthiest way to a well-tapered waistline.
A well-toned body with a fat-free waistline radiates strength and vitality that oozes robust, healthy living.

Let Food be thy Medicine and Medicine be thy Food-Hippocrates


Hippocrates of Kos
This quote by Hippocrates, the Father of Medicine acknowledges the importance of healthy eating and how the nutrients in various foods have healing properties to prevent or cure disease.
Hippocrates stated “It is very injurious to health to take in more food than the constitution will bear, when, at the same time one uses no exercise to carry off this excess.”
What you eat, how you think and what you do determine your quality of life and other future outcomes.
Unhealthy habits eventually have consequences that take their toll over time.
Serious illness calls everything into question - quality of life, family, job, and plans for the future are all placed in the shadow.
Healthy living invigorate the body, strengthens the immune system and reduces health risk factors.


Walking is Man's Best Medicine-Hippocrates


Hippocrates of Kos
As Hippocrates stated, “walking is man's best medicine” to increase your chance of living longer, get more energy, lose weight, stay healthy and positive.
A walking program strengthens your heart and lowers blood pressure.
Combined with a muscle toning program, it firms the muscles to make you look and feel good.
Other activities like jogging, cycling, swimming or aerobics also burn calories and keep your heart healthy.
Bending Exercises
Before undertaking any program of exercise or change in diet consult your doctor.


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